Profile and biography of Mikhail Kalashnikov.  He is best known as the maker or the inventor of the AK-47 weapons. He was born November 10, 1919, in the village of Kurya, the Soviet Union of a family of poor farmers.

Biography Of Mikhail Kalashnikov

A Young Man

At the age of 19, Kalashnikov participated conscription and joined the 24th Tank Regiment, 12th Tank Division where he graduated from the school of the mechanic tank and become a mechanic-driver of the tank and reached the rank of senior Sergeant (tank commander). In October 1941, in fierce battles at Bryansk, Kalashnikov is badly injured and had to be hospitalized.

The history of the creation of AK-47 Gun

Over the past few years, Kalashnikov continues to work by improving the design embodies and combines various elements of automatic weapons and assault rifles that had existed at the time.

The first innovation is the use of short cartridges 7.62x39mm. "smaller and compact," said Paul Cornish, a curator of arms at the Imperial War Museum, London, United Kingdom. Selection of gas can also be used as propulsion guns.

Gas can be recycled into the piston and is used for charging the next bullet. So a gun that works with the same principle as the machine gun.

Two things, plus a very simple design is the genius of the Kalashnikov. Until later in the year 1947 is the AK-47 (Avtomat a 1947 model).

In 1949, the AK-47 became the standard rifle of the Soviet Red Army. During the cold war, the AK-47 (Kalashnikov and generation next, AKM) used by Communist troops around the world.

The Soviets additionally piping weapons to aggressor gatherings and left-wing guerrillas who bolster the Soviet interests. As of not long ago, the AK-47 being the most famous weapons on the planet. It is evaluated at around 100 million AK-47 is circling the world over.

However, the Kalashnikov admitted to not earn any money from this. His income only comes from retirement money. Kalashnikov has created a weapon with a simple design, easily mass-produced, it is easy to use.

Even less trained by the army without losing its ability to turn off. These properties make the AK-47 into an effective and reliable weapons for paramilitary and city in battle.

When was this hospital he has ideas for designing a submachine gun? The ability of the Kalashnikov as a designer invites attention. He worked at the Moscow Aviation Institute.

Starting in 1942, Kalashnikov worked at Central Research Small Arms Range of the Main Ordnance Directorate of the Red Army. At the same time, the Soviet army was interested in developing an effective assault rifle that is a shortened M1943 round.

The first weapon was presented by Sudayev in 1944, but in tests, it turned out that the guns were too heavy. A new design competition was held two years later where Kalashnikov and his design team participated in the competition.

AK-47 became the symbol of the revolution and even some countries cite images the AK-47 as part of the coat of arms. The name of the Kalashnikov is also used for a variety of items such as umbrellas, knives, and vodka.

Kalashnikov is often asked whether he felt guilty for results that are used in a variety of bloody conflict. But he said,

... My goal is creating the AK-47 is the weapon to defend my homeland. Not wrong me if Kalashnikov became world famous and was used in the conflict areas. Who is to blame is the policy of these countries is not the designer of his weapon. – Mikhail Kalashnikov

He also said that he did not know how the weapons of his creation could exist in the hands of the terrorists and bandits. He is proud of his work even though he professes to be more pleased if they could make a machine that can help farmers, such as lawn mowers.

AK-47 Weapons Standards the militants and rebels.

AK-47 Avtomat Kalashnikova 47 abbreviated. The number 47 is the year in which these weapons are made. This weapon is very good, very popular legendaries soldier, militant, gangsters, terrorists or robbers though.

How not, this weapon is very easy to use even small children can operate these weapons. The AK-47 is tough to use in any war zone, although this weapon filled sand, his bullets still could come out when fired, although it also filled the mud this weapon also could still be fired.

Even in an article written during the cold war, 9 out of 10 people have died because of this bullet-swept by. This is the real weapons of mass destruction. The price of an AK-47 is also very cheap, its value might be the same with the price of a bottle of brandy.

On December 23, 2013, Mikhail Kalashnikov, died at a hospital in Izhevsk, Udmurtia Republic capital where he lived, the Kalashnikov has been hospitalized for the past month with health problems is not known.

Inventor. Biography of Mikhail Kalashnikov.

Mikhail Kalashnikov – Inventor of The AK-47 Gun

Biography Of Thomas Alva Edison. He was one of the inventors of the most contributing to the world thanks to his findings, namely incandescent lamps. He is also an entrepreneur who was the first to mass produce the bulb its findings.

Childhood is considered Stupid

In Ohio, the United States on February 11, 1847, was born a boy named Tommy call. He was born with the ability of mediocrity, has no specific intelligence as other children.

While studying at school, Tommy is unable to follow the education being taught in his school. Therefore, Tommy always gets bad grades and disappointing. Very stupid this boy in view of the party school, made the teachers chose to surrender in an effort to educate Tommy.

One day, Tommy Tommy calling school teachers and give him the letter. The teacher told do not open this letter in travel, give to thy mother. Little Tommy is pleased to bring it home and give it to his mother.

Received a letter; Tommy's mom, Nancy Mathews, read it, then cried. When his tears came out, he read the letter aloud: You son of a genius. The school was too small for them and do not have a teacher to educate himself. In order for you to educate himself, his mother said in a loud voice.

Mother Tommy said to Tommy that you son of a genius son, the school is not yet good enough to educate children who are very good like you. From now on; the mother who will educate you. His mother then draws little Tommy's House and leave the school.

A Great Curiosity

Tommy was undergoing an education at home. Thus Tommy ever learns with free and freely in their homes without having to think about the values the lessons that should be achieved. At home, Tommy pun excitedly devouring scientific books. One remarkable character owned Tommy is the desire him that unusually large plus the unyielding nature of any face.

Tommy ever does great experiments, before entering school age Tommy manages to dissect animals, this is because of the desire him to an animal in the vicinity.

Thomas Edison Made The Telegraph

At the age of twelve, little Tommy already has a small chemical laboratory in the basement of his father's House. A year later he managed to make even the Telegraph forms and model simple and primitive but it could work.

The year 1861 civil war occurs between the States of North and South. This topic to the attention of the people. Thomas Edison saw this opportunity and buy an old print tool for 12 dollars.

He then scored his own story which was given the name "Weekly Herald". This newspaper was the first newspaper printed on a train and fair sold. Oplahnya reaches 400 a day.

Biography of Thomas Alva Edison, at this time Tommy nearly lost his hearing due to an accident. But he doesn't think of it as flawed even think of it as an advantage because he has plenty of time to think than to listen to an empty talk.

The year 1868 Tommy got a job as a telegraph operator in Boston. The whole of his spare time was spent to conduct technical experiments. This year, he found the intercom system electrically.

Thousands Of Attempts Before Successfully

In 1877, he was fussing with the problems at that time with the attention of many researchers, namely incandescent lamps. Tommy realizes how important it is that kind of light sources for the life of the human race.

Find Lamp

Therefore devoting the entire Tommy manpower and time, as well as spending money as much as 40,000 dollars obtained from results of selling his invention to companies and within two years he was experimenting to make incandescent bulbs.

The question is how to find the materials can reply flashing when an electric current but does not burn. In total there are about 6000 ingredients that she tried. Through hard endeavors of Tommy, at last on October 21, 1879, was the primary electric radiant lights that are equipped for consuming for 40 hours.

The world no longer pitches dark when night. Tommy deems foolish little time it successfully created the incandescent bulb, which changed the face of the world forever.

The Discovery Other Than Lamps

Biography of Thomas Alva Edison noted that he received his first patent for the electric vote recorder but no one is interested in buying it and so he switched to the discovery is commercial. His first discovery was that non-commercial use is a stock ticker.

Tommy sold his invention to a company and earn money of 40000 dollars. This money is used by Tommy to open company and the laboratory at Menlo Park, New Jersey.

In the laboratory, it is this it various inventions that later on laying the changing patterns of life for most people in the world. The year 1877 he also found the phonograph.

Much more useful results for Tommy. Overall Tommy has produced the 1,039 patients. Development is once in a while said among others: Broadcast print, Electric Pencil Sharpener, process mining, electric torpedo attractive, engineered elastic, batteries, bond blender, mouthpiece, phone transmitter carbon and moving picture projector.

Thomas Edison also has merit in the field of cinema. He combines photographic film which has developed film industries become George Eastman that produce millions of dollars.

He made the Black Maria, a motion picture studio built on the spin. Passing through the years 1920-an increasingly worsening his health and he died on 18 October 1931 at the age of 84 years.

Unique Facts Of Thomas Alva Edison

Among the numerous success stories founder, General Electric was tucked into some interesting facts. Here we present 10 include the following:

  • Thomas Alva Edison is not Deaf, hard of hearing, Tommy often called deaf. But it is not at all cannot hear, but have difficulties to hear perfectly. The cause is different according to some sources. Some call because a fever when she was a child as well as the number of times the middle part of the ear infection is not treated. There is also a mention because his ears struck a train conductor when his chemical laboratory in the carriage of goods on fire.
  • Newspapers on the train first, Tommy penchant for experimenting in the railway carriage makes it has laboratories in the carriage of goods even though the laboratory was eventually caught fire. Tommy then rebuilds chemical laboratory and printing in the trunk of a car. It was here that he published from Grand Trunk Herald which was the first newspaper published on the train.
  • The dot and Dash, Tommy has three children from his marriage to Mary Stilwell. Two of his children were given the unique nickname, Dot (Marion Estelle Edison) and Dash (Thomas Alva Edison Junior), who was allegedly taken from the coat of arms used in the Morse password i.e the point "." and "-".
  • Apply for Mina with Morse code, after Mary Stilwell died, Tommy met Mina Miller who is a son of inventor Lewis Miller. He taught Mina Morse code so that they can communicate secretly with a knock code in their hands. One day, Tommy asked Mina:.-– ... - .-.. -.. –. –. –. – –. –. –. .-. -.-–. which is then answered by: Mina-.-. ... Shortly thereafter, both married.
  • Reject called fails, Tommy protested a newspaper containing the headlines: "After 9,955 times failed to find the incandescent light bulb, Tommy finally managed to find a burning lamp". He asked for the title of the news was replaced. The next day, at the request of Tommy, newspapers were replacing the main headlines being: "After 9,955 times managed to find the failed lamp lights up, Tommy finally managed to find a burning lamp"
  • The first patent failed, in 1869, at the age of 22, Tommy gained his first patent for a u.s. news service voice recording machine drummed for the legislature. With the tool, each Member of the legislature simply moving one button on the machine that will record the Bill that he has chosen. Unfortunately, the legislature rejected because of the way it works slow.
  • Tattoo machine, in 1876, Tommy patented Stencil-pens, a tool which then modified the machine to be Samuel O'Reilly first tattoo. But he still was awarded in recognition of the invention of the first tattoo machine.
  • The first industrial research lab, after selling quadruplex Telegraph purchased Western Union for $ $10 thousand, Tommy used the money acquired to build a place that will specialize in deliberately to continue to produce and develop technological innovation. Located in Menlo Park, New Jersey was eventually developed into the first industrial research laboratory in the world.
  • Witch Menlo Park, the Nickname acquired Tommy after successfully find the phonograph in 1877 at once raised his popularity. The achievement was not very provision unexpected by many people so it looks like magic. His first successful phonograph record sound on tin foil around a grooved cylinder. But the quality of the resulting sound was still bad and the results of her could only play back multiple times only.
  • Electricity for all, the concept and implementation of the power plant and its distribution to the home, Office, and the factory are very important in the development of world industrialization. Tommy was the one who first came up with the concept of it. The first electric power plants built on Manhattan Island, New York in 1882.

Long after his mother's death and Tommy have been responsible for the inventor.

One day at home he browsed old family goods. Suddenly he saw the paper folded in a desk drawer.

He opened it and read its contents: Your son's a stupid kid. We do not allow your child to attend school again. So the content of the actual letter that was taken and given to Tommy to his mother, first time after school.

Tommy is crying for hours after reading the letter. He later wrote in his diary book :

If you enjoy the bright lights at this time, bear in mind that we owe not on a Thomas Alfa Edison but to a mother who is viewed in different ways. Eyes of the love of parents.

If someday, your son or daughter gets stupid cap, cap, cap naughty sluggish or another stamp, which is the same as Thomas Alfa Edison small, who will you trust?

Background information
Name: Thomas Alva Edison
Birth: Ohio, United States, 11 February 1847
Died: New Jersey, USA, October 18, 1931
Parents: Samuel Ogden Edison, Jr. (father), Nancy Matthews Elliott (mother)
Brother: Samuel Ogden Edison, William Pitt, Wallace, Marion Edison Edison Edison, Eliza Smith, Carlile Snow Edison, Harriett Ann
Wife: Mary Stilwell, Mina Miller
Children: Charles Edison, Thomas Alva Edison Jr., Theodore Miller Edison, William Leslie Edison, Madeleine Edison

Inventions. Thomas Alva Edison Biography.

Thomas Alva Edison Biography, Genius Child Inventor of The Incandescent Lamp

The biography of Al-Khwārizmī. He is known as one of the most famous Muslim scientists. Al Khwārizmī became known as an expert in mathematics, astronomy and geography. He is best known in the field of algebra and the invention of the zero.

Al Khwārizmī Bio

The biography of Al Khwārizmī Muḥammad bin Mūsā
Name: al-Khwārizmī
Known For: Al Khwārizmī
Born: Uzbekistan, Khwarezm, 780 CE.
Died: Baghdad, Iraq, 850 ad.
Origin: Persia, Iran
Contribution: zero, algebra, geometry

The Biography Of Al Khwārizmī

Al-Khwārizmī 's real name is Musa bin Muhammad al-Khwārizmī. In addition, he was recognized as Abu Abdullah Muhammad bin Ahmad bin Yusoff.

Al-Khwārizmī, known in the West as al-Khwārizmī, al-Cowarizmi, al-Ahawizmi, al-Karismi, al-Gorithmi, al-Gorismi and a few other ways of spelling. He is best known as the inventor of algebra and also number zero. No wonder the West called him Father or father Algebra Algebra

Al Khwārizmī, born in Bukhara. The year 780-850 Ce is an era of noble al-Khwārizmī. Al-Khwarizmi died between 220 and 230 ad. Some say al-Khwārizmī, who lived around the beginning of the mid-9th century.

Other sources state that he lived in Khawarism, Uzbekistan in 194 Hijri/780 A.d. and died in Hijri/266 850 Ad in Baghdad.

In education has proven that al-Khwārizmī was an Islam that is well-rounded. Knowledge and expertise not only in the field of Sharia but on philosophy, logic, arithmetic, geometry, music, arithmetic, Islamic history and chemistry.

Al Khwārizmī has created the use of Secans and Tangent trigonometric and astronomical in the investigation. At a youthful age, he worked under Caliph al-Ma'mun, working at the Bayt al-Hikmah in Baghdad.

He worked at the Observatory, where he studied mathematics and astronomy. Al-Khwārizmī also believed to be leading the Library of the Caliph. He introduces figures India and India calculation to the Islamic world.

Discovering algebra.

Al Khwārizmī is also the author of an encyclopedia in a variety of disciplines. Al-Khwārizmī was first introduced algebra and arithmetic. More science he studied in mathematics and produced so popular mathematical concepts that are still used today.

Many other concepts in mathematics have been introduced al-Khwārizmī. Astronomy also makes al-Khwārizmī. Astronomy can be interpreted as the science of Mu'awwadzatain [knowledge of the stars which involves the study of the position, movement, and related thoughts and interpretations.

Al-Khwārizmī 's personality has been recognized by Muslims and the Western world. It can be proven that g. Sarton says that the highest achievement  "the has been acquired by Eastern people ... " in this case Al-Khwārizmī.

Other characters, Wiedmann said ...  "al-Khwārizmī, has a strong personality and a man who dedicated his life to the world science ".

The role of Al Khwārizmī in mathematics.

Some branches of science in mathematics was introduced by al-Khwārizmī, such as geometry, algebra, arithmetic, and others. The second is the branch of geometry in mathematics.

The contents of the content discussed in this second branch are the origin of Euclidean geometry and reference al-Ustugusat [The Elements]: geometry in terms of the language comes from the word Greece ' geo ' which means Earth and ' metric ' means of measurement.

In terms of science, geometry is the study of things related to the magnitude and nature of the space. This geometry is studied since the time of the Pharaohs.

Then Thales Miletus introduced geometry from Egypt to Greece as the science of the 6th century BC, in addition to Islamic scholars have perfected rules of science education, especially in the 9th century AD.

Algebra is a pulse of mathematics. Al-Khwārizmī, the work has been translated by Gerhard Gremano and Robert Chaster into European languages of the 12th century.

Before this, there ware no algebraic terms, before the appearance of a paper entitled ' Reckoning Jibra al wa al-Muqabalah by al-Khwārizmī in 820 ad. Al-Khwārizmī knew dead in Iraq Baghdad area in 850 ad.

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Al Khawarizmi's work

  • Al-Jabr and Muqabalah: he has created the use of secans and tangents in a trigonometric and astronomical investigation. 
  • Reckoning wa al-Jabr al-Muqabalah: he has proposed an example math problem and raises the issue of 800, most of which are issues raised by Neo. Babylian in the form of allegations that have been demonstrated by al-Khwārizmī.

The biography of Al-Khwārizmī, The Inventor of Algebra and Zero | Biography Of Friedhelm Hillebrand. Short Message Service (SMS) is a service that is implemented using a mobile phone for the purpose of sending and receiving short messages. The beginning of SMS created as part of GSM, but now it can be used on mobile networks, including UMTS.

Maximum SMS messages consisting of 140 bytes, a message can contain 8-bit characters, 140 160 7 bit characters or 70 16 bit characters. In addition, there are other 140 bytes of data are also included. There are also several methods to send messages more than 140 bytes, but the user will have to pay more. Not only can you send SMS text only but can also send pictures, sounds, and movies but the SMS MMS.

The Inventor Of The Short Message Service (SMS)

Friedhelm Hillebrand. He was born in 1940 in Warstein, Germany. Friedhelm Hillebrand is known as the inventor of text messaging or SMS (Short Message Service).

Friedhelm Hillebrand earned a Master of Science degree in communication technologies from the Technical University of Aachen in 1968. Then he joined AEG Telefunken Research Institute in Ulm and worked on the concept of the electronic switching system. He joined Deutsche Bundespost, a national telecommunications company, in 1970. From the year 1976, he became responsible for developing the concept of x.25 packet switching for DATEX-P network from the first concept through to the end of the first year in 1981. He then became a project manager for mobile communications systems appointed next generation in the spring of 1983.

Friedhelm Hillebrand participates in plenary GSM from November 1984 onwards. He contributed in the field of telecommunications for design services, international roaming and working methods of management. On 1987-1988 he became the founding Chairman of the GSM data groups (IDEG, later called WP4). Since mid-1987, Friedhelm Hillebrand is responsible for the contribution of the GSM of the Deutsche Bundespost, and partners with GSM operators and GSM D1 network implementation in Germany. He is responsible for the system and network support the D1 and it systems until the end of the first year in 1992.

In 1984 before the SMS concept was first developed by Friedhelm Hillebrand cooperation and France cell researcher Bernard Ghillebaert.

The first SMS sent by Neil Papworth in 1992 to Richard Jarvis, one of the officers of Vodafone. Because cell phones are not equipped by that time the keyboard, typing a message on the PC Papworth. The sound of the first SMS message was sent Papworth was "Merry Christmas".

The initial version of GSM cell phones cannot be used to send SMS. At that time the SMS is only used to send a warning to operators of mobile users. In 1993 the Nokia products were the first to make the mobile phone with the ability to send SMS.

The History Of SMS

Sms messages are sent through a mobile phone to the SMSC (SMS Centre), the message is stored and sent over a few times. After the time specified in 1 day or 2 days, SMS messages will be deleted. The user will receive a confirmation from the SMSC.

In Australia, Asia, and Europe SMS is very popular. Once in the United States, the difference rarely use SMS. SMS can be popular because of the cheap price. Because of the difficulty in typing and save space, usually, SMS will be in short-short. But now it is resolved by having a cell phone that features a dictionary.

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SMS messages ever make minor changes in the community.

Here are a few excerpts:
There is a January 2001 forced Joseph Estrada to abdicates as President of the Philippines. The campaign was coordinated by SMS.

In July 2001, the Government of Malaysia has decided to drop the divorce, the three are not allowed to use SMS. Anyone who borrows or steals a cell phone and using a short message.

In 1980-an there is an idea to add functionality on an exchange of text messages to mobile phones in the first proposed by the community of mobile phone services. In December 1982 the proposed short messages to mobile phones have finally developed and on critical limits, stretcher CEPT group Global System For Mobile Communications (GSM) has been approved. The proposal has added facilities in text messaging services into the mobile phone function unless he possessed his Fax so that the mobile phone users can communicate in writing with more services. And in 1980-an this concept is planned in order to exchange messages directly within the broad scope of such a service call to a different operator.

Then in 1984, the concept was developed by the French company GSM is working with Germany, especially GSM company by Friedhelm Hillebrand and Bernard Ghillebaert. Short message service development, because in those days the main function of GSM is receiving and making voice calls.

The development of SMS continues to be made on standard protocol settings and then l = continue in the settings for the network in the year 1985 the first to in some countries, especially in Europe. To ensure this technology truly meets the standards, implementation of the concept of the initial SMS then took place in 1990 's. And the results of the first ever SMS delivered successfully by the SEMA group's network by using Orbitel 901 handset to PC and accepted by the GSM network in the country United Kingdom VODAVONE on December 3, 1992. And in 1993 Riku Pihkonen, an engineering student at NOKIA someone experimenting next SMS from GSM mobile phones to another mobile phone ever succeed at trial.

Advantages Of SMS

SMS has several advantages. It is an ideal form to communicate when you do not want to be heard. In addition, no SMS service takes longer than making a phone call or send an e-mail. SMS does not require you to be in front of your computers such as email and instant messaging (IM), though some cell phones are equipped with mobile email and IM services. SMS is also a convenient way for fewer people hearing or even deaf to communicate.

SMS is a service of store-and-forward, which means that when you send a text message to your friends, not directly to your friend's mobile phone. The advantage of this method is that the mobile phone of your friends doesn't have to be active or within reach for you to send the message. The message is stored in the SMSC (SMS Center) until your friends turn on her cell phone in or come back within range, where a message can be delivered. Then the message is still stored on the SIM card your friend until she removes it.

In addition to sending individual messages, SMS can be used to send messages to large numbers of people at a time, either from the contact list or to all users in a particular area. The service is called "broadcast" and used by the company to contact the Group employees or with the online service to distribute news and other information to customers.

In 2004 the University of Plymouth study about user SMS, psychology researchers found that cell phone users most is the "sender" or "caller". Compared to the caller, the user who likes SMS more nearly doubled. According to them, the SMS giving the option to check the message before sending it.

SMS is also not overloaded the network as much as a phone call, the service is often used by TV show to vote on a poll or topic voting contestants. Internet search engines or search engines like Yahoo! and Google has the SMS service that allows users to get information such as driving directions, schedule playback movies or local business listings with just a meng-SMS query to phone number search engine. Some social networks also use SMS service to send you a verification code.

Biography Of Friedhelm Hillebrand-Inventor Of The Short Message Service (SMS)

Biography Of Fredrik Idestam – Founder Of Nokia. Who is not familiar with Nokia, a manufacturer of telecommunications companies in the world. But since its telecommunication Division acquired by Microsoft, Nokia is already rarely again issued a new mobile product with the name of Nokia products. Nokia's success is inseparable from the intervention of Fredrik Idestam, known as a founder of Nokia. Nokia, based in Finland, the company is the largest telecommunications company in the country.

About Fredrik Idestam himself, he was born in Tyrväntö, Finland on October 28, 1838. The full name of Fredrik Idestam Knut Fredrik Idestam is. Very little information about the history of education of Fredrik Idestam. However, it is known that he was a mining engineer. Although the title of master and Engineer Fredrik Idestam, Mining started his business in the field of the production of paper.

Set up a factory Making Paper Business named Nokia

Paper production effort made by Idestam because seeing the market opportunity is huge in Europe when the demand of the industry against the paper is very high. The other thing that underlies Idestam pioneering venture paper mill is a new technology about making-paper which he brought from Germany to Finland, where previously paper-making technology in Finland still use fabric as a raw material but thanks to technology from Heinrich Voelter about making paper using wooden raw materials then Idestam then adopted him and introduced him in Finland. After receiving permission on 12 May 1865, Idestam Paper making factory then official standing with the Nokia name. and the date of its establishment later commemorated as the day of the founding companies Nokia.

The name Nokia originated from a community that exists in the Emakoski River in southern Finland. Nokia's own factory established in addition to the waterfall in Tampere in 1866. Nokia factory deliberately established near the waterfalls which are used as a power plant for the factory abundant wood surrounding the factory as raw material for paper.

The high demand for papermaking factory founded by Fredrik Idestam grew rapidly. Until later in the year 1871, Fredrik Idestam alongside Leo Michelin moved his business to the city of Finland and then officially established a company called Nokia Ltd. Company when it became the largest paper companies in Finland and successfully master the paper industry and paper exports to other European regions.

Then on April 8, 1916, Fredrik Idestam as a founder of Nokia died and left the company Nokia to his successor. Until then when finished World War I, in 1920, Nokia Ltd continues to develop into a leading paper manufacturer in mainland Europe. Then the company's Finnish Rubber Works in Raw Rubber and Finnish Cable Works in Cable and Telegraph are there in Finland join Nokia.

Nokia Became The World's Telecommunications Manufacturers

Until later in the year 1950, the Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of Nokia called Björn Westerlund then predicted that future growth in some sectors pulp and paper will be limited to and instead built an electronics division at the factory cable from Helsinki, the embryo begins to lead to a sector of seluluer. Nokia electronics for 15 years through the efforts of various errors. However, of all the mistakes and experiments that, instead of gradually waking up substantial skills of a group of experts who are talented. Year 1970-80s television manufacturer Nokia and Salora joined forces to develop a mobile phone.

In early 1981, Nokia managed to launch a product called Nordic Mobile Telephony (NMT). NMT is the first multinational mobile network in the world. Therefore, throughout the decade 1980-an NMT was introduced to a number of countries and tremendous acclaim. Now as many as 2,100 successful elections caused Nokia phone series. Sales targets by as much as 500 thousand units successfully achieved in 1994. With labor as much as 54 thousand, Nokia products sold in 130 countries. Now maybe everyone knows the cell phone that is easy to operate is Nokia because that's the motto of Nokia.
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Nokia became the world's largest mobile phone manufacturer. In 1998, Nokia's focus on telecommunications and early investment in GSM technologies had made the company a leader in the cell phone world. But Nokia does not succeed forever, in early 2010, the rigors of competition products the world finally makes mobile phone Nokia continuous decline, Nokia continued to suffer losses in the end exactly on April 25, 2014, Nokia officially acquired by Microsoft who then ended the heyday of Nokia company built by Fredrik Idestam in mobile phone business for 34 years.

Inventor. Biography Of Fredrik Idestam.

Biography Of Fredrik Idestam-Founder Of Nokia

Biography and profile of Bill Hewlett and David Packard. Hewlett-Packard Company or commonly known as HP is one of the largest technology manufacturing companies in the world. HP company moving services sector technologies such as computing, software, printing and digital images. But its products are best known as the computer and printer as well.

The company's HP (Hewlett-Packard) based in the United States, was founded in Palo Alto, California, United States. Founder of the company there is two namely HP, Bill Hewlett, and Dave Packard. The following biography and Profile of Bill Hewlett and David Packard, known as the founder of the Firm HP (Hawlet Packard-)

Profile Of Bill Hewlett

Bill Hewlett was born on May 20, 1913, in Ann Arbor area of Michigan, United States. His full name is William Redington Hewlett. His father named Albion Walter Hewlett and worked as a doctor. Bill's mother named Louise Redington.

Bill Hewlett who was still a toddler and then moved to the territory of California following his parents because his father accepted work in the Faculty of medicine at Stanford University. But togetherness with her father Bill did not last long because his father died of the disease the tumor of the year 1925 when Bill Hewlett was 12 years old.

Finally the mother of Bill and then trying hard raising Bill Hewlett. Since the small Bill is very fond of mathematics and natural sciences. After finishing his schooling at Lowell High School, Bill and then continued her education with a lecture at Stanford University.

Bill Hewlett lecture at Stanford University in 1930 and finished the year 1934. He managed to get his Bachelor of Arts. Soon afterward he continued his education with a lecture at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and in 1936 he obtained his master's degree in electrical engineering.

Bill Hewlett later married Flora Lamson Hewlett in 1939. He then had five children named Elanor, Walter, James, William, and Mary. The wife of Bill Hewlett died in 1977. After his death his wife, Bill Hewlett later married Rosemary Bradford Hewlett. Bill Hewlett himself died on January 12, 2001, in Palo Alto, California.

Profile Of The David Packard

David Packard was born from the region named the Pueblo, Colorado, United States. His father was a lawyer and Sperry Packard mother named Ella Packard. David Packard attended Centennial High School where since the age of teenagers, he is very fond of science, engineering, sports and also leadership.

David Packard obtained his b. a. (Bachelor of Arts) after completing his studies at Stanford Univesity in 1934. At Stanford, he was also the sport for football and basketball as well. In college, he met his wife Lucile Salter.

He then continued his studies at the University of Colorado but not long he stops because you received a job offer from the General Electric Company in New York City. David Packard then resumed his studies at Stanford University and managed to get it done in 1938 in the field of Electrical Engineering. In that year, he married Lucile Salter who then gives it four children named David, Nancy, Susan, and Julie. David Packard died on March 26, 1996, at Stanford, California, United States.

The history of the founding of the Firm HP (Hewlett-Packard) by Bill Hewlett and David Packard

Bill Hewlett and David Packard, the two met while at the same class taught by Fred Terman at Stanford. From the introduction, in August 1937 they both then have the intention to create a joint company. New in the year 1939, Bill Hewlett and David Packard founded the company finally Hewlett-Packard (HP) in the garage of the House the Packard with an initial capital of $538.

In a book titled ' The HP Way ', David Packard mentions that the name of Hewlett-Packard (HP) is determined by a coin toss. As for the first product made by HP (Hewlett-Packard) is the Audio frequency oscillator which was later bought by the Walt Disney Studio that will be used in making the soundtrack of Fantasia.

From this the company HP (Hewlett-Packard) growing, when the second world war raged, the company manufactures equipment used for such military radio, radar and sonar, the device flight.

In the company of HP (Hewlett-Packard), David Packard was instrumental in the company's management as well as the Hewlett-Packard administrative Bill experts as they play a role in providing a lot of technical innovation.

Entering the year 1947, HP (Hewlett-Packard) then has a status of the official company and David Packard became President of HP (Hewlett-Packard). And in the year 1957, HP (Hewlett-Packard) is thriving as a large company and do its maiden share offer.

In the year 1964, Dave Packard and then elected as CEO of HP (Hewlett-Packard) and also as Chairman of the Board. He then left the Office in 1969 because David was appointed by President Nixon as Deputy Minister of defense of the United States until 1971.

The death of David, President Director of HP (Hewlett-Packard) then held by Bill Hewlett until 1977. He later became the CEO of HP (Hewlett-Packard) in 1968 until 1978 after which he then replace by John a. Young.
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David Packard himself after it was completed in 1971 served as United States Deputy Secretary of Defense, he then returned to the company's HP (Hewlett-Packard) and became Chairman of the Board of the company from the year 1972 until 1993.

While Bill Packard became Chairman of the Executive Committee of HP (Hewlett-Packard) until 1983 and then served as Vice Chairman of the Board until 1987.

The death of Bill Hewlett and David Packard, until recently the company's HP (Hewlett-Packard) is rapidly growing to become one of the largest technology company in the world. The main products are computers and printing machines as well. In addition, the company HP (Hewlett-Packard) also serve the sale of software and other technology services.

Inventor. Biography and Profile of Bill Hewlett and David Packard.

Biography and Profile of Bill Hewlett and David Packard – HP Company Founder (Hewlett-Packard) | Biography Jan Koum – The Story Of Inspirational Founder Whatsapp. Whatsapp is currently known as one of the most instant messaging applications are widely used in the world. Founder of WhatsApp i.e. Jan Koum along with Brian Acton. But did you know behind the success story of an inspiring tucked WhatsApp full struggles of one of its founders, namely Jan Koum. This time will be reviewed regarding the biography of Jan Koum is known as the founder of WhatsApp. Jan Koum was born on 24 February 1976 in Fastiv area named part of Kiev, Ukraine.

Father Jan Koum worked as a construction manager and his mother was a housewife. Jan Koum came from a family of Jewish descent. The Region of residence Jan Koum very alarming because all facilities such as electricity are very limited. Even for bathing, they should queue up in the shower.

Living in a country that often turbulent political is not an easy thing for Jan Koum, moreover, they were citizens of Jewish descent so they are often careful. Because of the increasing political turmoil and rising anti-Jewish movement in Ukraine, then in order to avoid this, Jan Koum family decided to move to the United States in 1990. They moved when Jan Koum was 16 years old and live in the Mountain View, United States.

Be Janitors in the grocery store

He lived there along with her mother and her grandmother, her father is still in Ukraine and will catch up with them. But unfortunately, father Jan Koum died in 1997 when still in Ukraine. Koum and his father rarely communicate over the phone because they avoid wiretapping by the Government of Ukraine.

Jan Koum with his mother then fought hard to survive in America. Mother Jan Koum then tried working as a nanny and Koum helped her mother by becoming a sweeper shop to meet their needs. However, they are still very deficient.

I was so poor his life Jan Koum when he packed by relying on free food rations from the Government to the homeless or bum. He also sometimes sleeping in public places just on the ground and lit the sky. All kinds of work he tries much when he first moved to America only to connect his life only. The Bitterness of life he had felt when that.

When Jan Koum moved to the United States, he was already proficient in speaking the language of the United Kingdom so that it then easy to attend school in America. At school, he was known as a rogue because it is very difficult to adjust and often involved the fight, even after she was a pupil of intelligent and very fond of computer programming that he learned in self-taught from books of the former.

He learned about computer networks in self-taught and even join the grub hackers known as w00w00 when at school. Graduating from school, he continued his education by going to San Jose University. To meet the necessities of life and the cost of College, Jan Koum later worked as a computer security system testers in Ernst & Young.

Accepted Work On Yahoo

In 1997, he met with Brian Acton, an employee of Yahoo who later became his close friend. Armed with the knowledge of computers a hefty studied are self-taught, Jan Koum then try applying for a job at Yahoo on the advice of Brian Acton and he later accepted.

But in 2000, the trials of life experienced Jan Koum when his mother died of cancer. His parents lived in, Jan Koum then lived with his grandmother. Along with Brian Acton, Jan Koum witnessed falls in the wake of Yahoo, he worked there as a programmer and project handling advertising at Yahoo.

While working at Yahoo, Jan Koum also that time in college. But she decided to Drop Out or stop from the campus and focus to work after being scolded by the CEO of Yahoo when it was David Filo. Seven years working at Yahoo then make Jan Koum alongside Brian Acton decided to retreat in 2007 from Yahoo. After that, they then spent her time on vacation and sightseeing in the region of South America for a year.

Denied Work by Facebook Application Creation and WhatsApp

After that, Jan Koum alongside Brian Acton then tried to apply for a job on Facebook but they both rejected by Facebook. Later in the year 2009, when the iPhone was having fame and Jan Koum else bought it, he was interested in a collection of contacts in your iPhone and also on the app store, he saw the great potential of the app store application on the iPhone that then gave him an idea of that is creating an application that can display the status of your phone contacts on your iPhone. The idea that the creation of the applications then push WhatsApp.

Jan Koum has a friend named Alex Fishman and then he told the idea to him. Hear those ideas, Alex Fishman later introduced Jan Koum with Igor Solomennikov an iPhone application developer. From her relationship with Igor, Jan Koum then managed to embody the idea and then create applications which he later named with WhatsApp.

From there he founded the company WhatsApp Inc. based in California in February 2009. Jan Koum spent much of her time developing applications creation despite his still often WhatsApp application crashes and is arguably not yet perfect and still in the original version. When launched, the application is only downloaded about 250 people, and most of my friends own Koum Jan.

Development of a slow makes WhatsApp Jan Koum almost gave up. Thence arise intention Jan Koum to stop development of the application and intend to work anything. When almost give up, his best friend, Brian Acton then told him to continue to develop the application of artificial WhatsApp Jan Koum and give a few months saw the great potential of the application.

Accompanied by a sense of hesitation Jan Koum continues to develop applications of his creation. Apple then came with the help of push notifications in the year 2009, this then gives way to Jan Koum to modify his application so that when users change the status of its application in WhatsApp automatically beginning in the network.

The Rapid Development Of WhatsApp

The initial version of WhatsApp is simply as a status update on your phone contacts on your iPhone. Then Jan Koum WhatsApp v2.0 released which features instant messaging feature which was later successfully raised the number of users of the application become 250 thousands of users. WhatsApp application when that rival is just another Blackberry Messenger (BBM) but saw limited use of FUEL only on Blackberry phones just then Jan Koum continues to develop its application.

Brian Acton then helps Jan Koum by seeking investors to fund the WhatsApp application development. The results of the Fund collected a number of 250 thousand dollars that came from a former employee of Yahoo. And formally Acton then joined Jan Koum WhatsApp application develop.

Whatsapp then continues to be developed by Jan Koum successfully launched of shipping features a photo of the year 2009 in the iPhone in addition to that he also released WhatsApp for another such device Android and Blackberry.

Then WhatsApp application converted into paid in 2010 and they managed to earn a revenue of 5000 dollars in the first month. This then makes many other investors flock to infuse capital in WhatsApp like Sequoia Capital who inject funds amounting to 8 million dollars.

Enter the year 2011, WhatsApp artificial Jan Koum made it big in 20 popular applications on the App Store da again re-injected Sequoia Capital funds amounting to 50 million dollars to WhatsApp WhatsApp values soared and made into a 1.5 billion dollars. This then makes the company Facebook wooing Jan Koum WhatsApp to sell, but was rejected by Jan Koum. Continue to expand later in the year 2013, WhatsApp managed to have about 200 million active users.
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Whatsapp bought by Facebook and Jan Koum became the New Rich

Google and Facebook then scramble to WhatsApp very acquired it's grown rapidly. Until later in the year 2013, Jan Koum alongside Brian Acton agreed to sell WhatsApp to Facebook with a value of 19 Millar dollars. Making both as semi-foreign thanks to WhatsApp application develop their struggle. Jan Koum itself after its application was successfully acquired by Facebook, his wealth soared drastically amounted to 6.8 billion dollars, and in the year 2015 and then his fortune rose by 7.9 billion dollars according to Forbes magazine.

That's a bit of information about the biography of Jan Inpiratif and the story of Koum founder WhatsApp.

Inventor. Biography Of Jan Koum.

Biography Of Jan Koum – The Story Of Inspirational Founder Whatsapp